Access Management Presentation
FHWA, Washington, D.C.
Slide 2. Presentation
- General overview
- Benefits and Consequences
- Access Management in Practice
- Elements of an AM Program
Slide 3. Part 1
Slide 4. What is "Managing Access"?
Managing and Planning the Spacing and Design of:
Slide 5. Definition of AM
FORMAL: Access management is the programmatic control of the location, spacing, design, and operation of driveways, median openings, interchanges, and street connections to a roadway. (TRB Manual)
INFORMAL: Where the road meets the driveways
Slide 7. A Very Brief History of AM
part 1 of 4
New Jersey 1902 – established "speedways" for horses and bicycles. "No public streets or other highways shall cross or intersect the speedway at grade without consent of the county"
U.S. Supreme Court 1906 – decided that access control along highways was a sovereign power of the states.
Slide 8. A Very Brief History of AM
part 2 of 4
Between 1900 and 1920 the number of automobiles grew from 8K to 10M and lobby groups emerged (e.g., AAA and AASHO)
1919- DDE undertook a transcontinental military convey from D.C. to San Francisco (62 days)
1921 Federal-Aid act established a system of national routes
Slide 9. A Very Brief History of AM
part 3 of 4
In 1920's it became apparent that automobile (related) deaths were soaring.
In 1937 NY and RI established the first statewide statutes that included "abutting" access control and required permits and reviews as part of their state route adoption plan
By late 1940's almost every state legislated permitting accesses to some degree and court decisions began to confirm that public safety and mobility essentially trumped a landowner's absolute right to access at any point
Slide 10. Basic "right to access"
A property owner has right to have access (i.e., not to be landlocked)
but does NOT have right to expect absolute access at any point,
NOR should they expect compensation for relocated access as long as the government shows justifiable cause and least-impact.
Slide 11. A Very Brief History of AM
part 4 of 4
National standards for individual driveway design were developed in 1960 – AASHO "An Informational Guide for Preparing Private Driveway Regulations for Major Highways"
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